The INEE website has moved to You are currently viewing the static archive of the former INEE website, established in May 2019.

Promoting access to quality, safe, and relevant education for all persons affected by crisis

Annotated Bibliography: INEE Minimum Standards

INEE has compiled an annotated bibliography  for documents and publications that discuss the Minimum Standards or use standards as a framework. Use of the resources on this page can strengthen one's knowledge, understanding, and ability to work with the Minimum Standards. If you have used the Minimum Standards in a published paper or document and would like to share with other INEE members, please send to: [email protected]

View and Download the complete annotated bibliography


Annotated Bibliography (presented alphabetically)

Alexander, J. (2011). Education Cluster in Pakistan lessons learned: Flood response. Global Education Cluster.

Anderson, A. & Roberts, B. (2005). The Inter-Agency Network for Education and Emergencies. Forced Migration Review.

Anderson, A., Martone, G., Robinson, J., P., Rognerud, E., Sullivan-Owomoyela, J. (2006). Standards put to the test: Implementing the INEE Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crisis and Early Reconstruction. Humanitarian Policy Network. Overseas Development Institute. London: United Kingdom.

Andina, M. (2007). Education in Emergencies: Standards for Human Rights and Development. Current issues in Comparative Education, 9(2), 6-19. Teachers College, Columbia University. London: United Kingdom

Bakhshi, H. (2008). Competing conceptual frameworks in emergency education interventions: A multiple-case study analysis. (Masters thesis). Institute of Education, University of London.

Bird, L. (2006). Education and Conflict: An NGO Perspective. Forced Migration Review. Available at:

Buckland, P. (2006). Post-Conflict Education: Time for a Reality Check? Forced Migration Review. Available at:

Burde, D. (2005). Education in Emergencies and Post-Conflict Situations: Problems, Responses and Possibilities, vol. 2.

Campbell, L. (2009). Donor support for education in emergencies in the Consolidated Appeals Process: an analysis of current policy and practice. (Masters thesis). Uppsala Universitet.

Canales Gallardo, C., G. (2009). Early childhood education: Towards sustainable peace in Sri Lanka. (Masters thesis). Graduate Institute of Peace Studies, Kyung Hee University.

Corrigan, S. (2005). A comparative analysis of two long-term refugee education systems. Department of Sociology and Equity Studies in Education, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the, University of Toronto.

Chelpi-den Hamer, M. (2009) 'Educational attainments of Liberian refugees in Cote d'Ivoire (1992-2007): Reflections on certification, equivalence, and the relevance of informal schooling in a refugee situation', In: J. Kirk (ed). Certification counts: recognising the learning attainments of displaced and refugee children, pp. 200-221. Paris: UNESCO/IIEP

Cardozo, L. M. (2008). Sri Lanka: in peace or in pieces? A critical Approach to Peace Education in Sri Lanka. Comparative and International Education, 3, 19-25.

Global Education Cluster. (2011). Haïti earthquake, January 2010 Education Cluster lessons learned report. Global Education Cluster.

Hodgkin, M. (2007). Negotiating Change: Participatory Curriculum Design in Emergencies. Current issues in Comparative Education, 9(2), 33-44. Teachers College, Columbia University.

Hewison, M. (2002). The fourth pillar: Minimum standards in education in emergencies. (Masters thesis). Oxford Brookes University.

Eschenbacher, H. (2009). INEE Guidance on Education in Conflict-Affected Countries: Responsive education from project to system. Journal of Education for International Development 4(1), pp.1-11.

Karanja, L. (2008). A Report on the Education of Urban Refugees in Nairobi, Kenya. (Doctoral thesis). Retrieved from: /uploads/documents/store/KaranjaSudaneseReport.pdf

Kirk, J. (2006). Examine the ways in which INEE’s Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction can be used by donors and other stakeholders to support their work in education. CIDA-INEE Policy Roundtable on Education in Emergencies, Fragile States and Reconstruction: Addressing Challenges and Exploring Alternatives. New York.

Kirk, J. (2007). INEE Minimum Standards: A Tool for Education Quality Assessment in Afghan Schools in Pakistan. Current issues in Comparative Education, 9(2), 20-32. Teachers College, Columbia University.

Kirk, J. (2007). Gender Based Violence in and Around Schools in Conflict and Humanitarian Contexts.  In Terry, G. & Hoare, J. (Eds), Gender Based Violence (pp.121-131). Oxford: Oxfam publishing.

Leu, E. (2011). Education for All in a Post-conflict Environment: The Case of Southern Sudan. Journal of International Comparative Studies, 18(3). Available at:

Ligon, F., Laub, T., Anderson, A. (2012). Global Aid Frameworks: Application of the INEE Minimum Standards for Advocacy, Coordination, and Quality Education Provision for Burmese Refugees in Thailand. In Kaprinska, Z. ed. (2012). Education, Aid and Aid Agencies (pp. 33-51). New York and London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Luswata, S. (2007). Getting Southern Sudanese Children to School. Migration Review. Retrieved from:

Mosher, L. (2011). Achieving the INEE Minimum Standards in Liberia: Lessons from the Liberia Teacher Training Program (LTTP). Drexel University.

Morris, A., Al-Aloul, N. (2010). Evaluation of UNRWA’s primary schools in Jordan. (Graduate research project), Institut d’études politiques, Paris

Mosselson, J., Wheaton, W., Frisoli, P., S., J. (2009). Education and Fragility: A Synthesis of the Literature. Journal of Education for International Development, 4(1), pp.1-17.

Natoniewski, M. (2008). Teacher Needs in Education in Displacement. Retrieved from: /post/academic_space/

Nicolai, S. (2007). Mind the gap: International aid to countries affected by conflict. In Leach, L., Mairead, D. (Eds). Education, Conflict and Reconciliation: International Perspectives (pp.33-50). Switzerland: International Academic Publishers.

Norgaard, N., F. (2011). A case study on the organisational processes of emergency youth education. (Masters thesis). Social Medicine & Global Health, Lund University

Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2009). Norway’s Humanitarian Affairs Policy.

Oakes, C., Saucier, k., Yamaguchi, M. (2009). Measuring Up: Creating a Monitoring System to Integrate Local and Global Education Standards. Capstone Project Report. The Elliott School of International Affairs, The George Washington University.

Paulso, J. (2006). Conflict, education and truth commissions : the case of Sierra Leone. (Masters thesis). Department of Educational Studies, University of Oxford.

Pausigere, P. (2010). Curriculum development in an urban refugee centre in South Africa.Wits Institutional Repository on DSpace. Retrieved from:

Penson, J., Yonemura, A., Sesnan, B., Ochs, K., Chanda, C. (2011). Beyond the Commonwealth Teacher Recruitment Protocol: Next steps in managing teacher migration in difficult circumstances.

Rea, D. (2007). Preparing for the future:Incorporating Disaster Management Education into Sri Lankan Schools. (Masters thesis). Coventry University.

Reaching Out to Asia. (2011). Improving the quality of education and building disaster resilience in schools: A case study of ROTA’s project in Nepal and experience of applying the INEE Minimum Standards. The Qatar Foundation.

Rhoades, A. (2010). Displaced Futures: Internally Displaced Persons and the Right to Education. (Masters thesis), United Nations University for Peace.

Roger, E., W. (2005). Education in emergencies and reconstruction: Bridging the funding gap. (Masters thesis). UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning.

Rose, P., & Greely, M. (2006). Education in Fragile States: Capturing lessons and identifying good practice.

Ruskin, L., A. (2009). Exploring the effectiveness of Child Friendly Spaces in providing Early Childhood Interventions for 3-6 year olds in fragile situations. (Masters thesis).

Schellekens, L. (2010). Education and the mitigation of conflict and fragility. United States Agency for International Development.

Smith, A. (2005). Education in the twenty-first century: Conflict, reconstruction and reconciliation. British Association for International and Comparative Education. 35(4), 373-391. University of Ulster, North Ireland.

Smith, A. (2011). Education and Peacebuilding: from ‘conflict-analysis’ to ‘conflict transformation’? Ulster Institutional Repository. University of Ulster.

Sobe, N. (2007). An Historical Perspective on Coordinating Education Post-Conflict: Biopolitics, Governing at a Distance, and States of Exception. Current issues in Comparative Education, 9(2), 45-54. Teachers College, Columbia University.

Sullivan-Owomoyela, J. (2006). Inter‐Agency Network for Education in Emergencies Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crisis, and Early Reconstruction: A Uganda Case Study. United States Agency for International Development.

Tate, R. (2009). The role of INGOs in meeting educational rights in conflict-affected fragile states: the case of ActionAid International Sierra Leone. (Masters thesis), Centre for International Education, University of Sussex.

Wright, L., A. (2010). The case of refugee education in education in Kenya: An analysis of Kakuma and Dadaad. (Masters thesis). University of Oxford.

UNCEF. (2009). Machel study 10-year strategic review: Children and conflict in a changing world. UNICEF: New York

Zeus, B. (2009). Exploring paradoxes around higher education in protracted refugee situations: The case of Burmese refugees in Thailand. (Masters thesis). Institute of Education, University of London.

Zanskas, S. (2010). A systems approach to post-conflict rehabilitation. In Martz, E. (Ed), Trauma rehabilitation after war and conflict: Community and individual perspectives (pp.111-132). New York: Springer Science+Business Media.