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Yemen, with the worst fighting taking place in the North.
From 2004 to present, Yemen has suffered from sporadic periods of violence between government forces and various rebel groups and political protesters.
According to Reuters, as of 2015, more than 21 million people in Yemen require some kind of humanitarian help to survive - about 80 percent of the population, including 2.3 million people who have been uprooted.
The damage done by years of internal conflict has caused signifcant damage to the country's infrastructure and school system. See Impact on Education for more information.
Clashes in the north broke out from June-August 2004 when soldiers fought with anti-government demonstrators under the leadership of cleric Hussein al-Houthi. Between 80 and 600 people were killed, including the cleric.
More than 200 people were killed in 2005 when the conflict between the two factions resumed. In May the leader of the rebellion agrees to halt the fighting in exchange for a pardon.
Two months later, fighting broke out across the country when protests against cuts to fuel subsidies turned violent. 36 people were killed.
Clashes continued intermittently between rebels and government forces through 2007 and 2008 with casualties on both sides. The prolonged periods of fighting lead the people of Yemen to demand electoral reform.In August 2009, the army launches an assault of rebel forces that displaces tens of thousands of people. The violence continued to escalate with 2011 seeing some of the worst of the fighting.
In March 2013 a national conference took place with the intent of drafting a new constitution. While nothing has been finalised to date, outbursts of violence since then have died down though years of conflict between rebel groups and government forces have taken their toll and produced hundreds of thousands of displaced persons and caused untold damage to the country's infrastructure.
As well as constant periods of conflict, Yemen is regularly affected by natural disasters. The landslide in December 2005 in the village of al-Dhafir which killed 60 people and destroyed 25 homes and flash floods in August 2013 (discussed later) are notable examples.
Children have been severely impacted by the recent years of fighting. According to a 2011 UNICEF report into that year's unrest, 82 schools in the capital were attacked by armed groups and several children were killed in the conflict.
The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre states that in the 2010 conflict alone, 220 of the 725 schools in the Sa’ada (capital) governorate were damaged or destroyed, or looted and that many children living camps have missed up to two years or more of instruction during the conflict. According to the Arab Human Development Reports, the mean years of schooling is 2.5 years whereas the expected amount of years in school is 8.6
There have been dozens of documented instances of rebel groups recruiting and using child soldiers. As a result of the confict, many children have been traumatised and require psychosocial report for which UNICEF has teamed with the Child Protection Initiative.
Education for women has suffered the most. IRIN News states that the illiteracy rate among men is 30% whereas it stands at 67% for women.
Natural disasters are relatively common in Yemen but rarely cause casualties or significantly damage infrastructure. However, flash floods in August 2013 have been particularly severe. They have killed around 40 people and, according to IRIN News, “destroyed half of the tents and caused widespread damage at three camps for internally displaced persons near Haradh, northwestern Yemen." Schools have also been destroyed and classrooms damaged meaning children in the camps have no dedicated learning environments.
International Community Services
Save the Children
Swedish Free Mission
According to UNOCHA, as of August 22nd, this year's Humanitarian Response Plan is only 44% funded, leaving a shortfall of $396m. The education cluster needs $20m to meet its targets and the UN has urged donors to raise additional funding, warning that “any movement towards stability could collapse unless people’s very basic needs are met."
While overally school enrollment has gradually improved, there is still a significant gulf between boys and girls. UNICEF's 2011 figures show 98% of boys are enrolled in primary school whereas the figure dips dramatically to 78% for girls while for secondary school enrollment dips for both boys and girls, to 49% and 31% respetively.
The UNDP states that Yemen can 'potentially' meet its Millennium Development Goal of ensuring that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary education by 2015 but it lists the following challenges:
It also predicts that the country is unlikely to meet its goal to "eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015" citing the following obstacles:
The following key INEE resources in English and Arabic can be used to support EiE efforts in Yemen.
Refugees and Internal Displacements, Natural Disasters, Child Soldiers, Internal Conflict, Gender Inequality.
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