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Promoting access to quality, safe, and relevant education for all persons affected by crisis

Annotated Bibliography: Education for Youth Affected by Crisis

Crises negatively affect the education and livelihood prospects of youth, which in turn can play a role in the perpetuation of fragility in post-crisis settings. The development and implementation of effective education and training for youth in contexts characterized by displacement, a breakdown of social services, and economic despair presents a broad spectrum of challenges. Yet, it is a necessary component of promoting self-sufficiency and long-term stability.

This annotated bibliography aims to contribute to building the evidence base to effectively articulate and advocate for successful, quality education programming for all youth affected by crisis. The selection criteria for documents reviewed in this annotated bibliography were broadly defined as any texts dealing with, reviewing, analyzing, evaluating or describing educational programmes catering specifically or partially to youth and adolescents in situations of emergency, protracted crisis through to post-crisis and recovery. Preference was given to texts that address specific impacts and lessons learned. This review is not meant to be a mapping exercise of existing programmes and actors, rather it attempts to document specific impacts of programmatic approaches. To suggest additional articles to be included in the annotated bibliography or for further information, please contact [email protected] or [email protected].

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Annotated Bibliography (presented alphabetically)

Abdalla, A. K., Davenport, N., Mctyre, L. and Smith, S. A. (2002), Independent Program Evaluation; Search for Common Ground in Burundi 1999-2002 (Unpublished Document).

Atari, D. O., Abdelnour, S., McKague, K. and Wager, R. (2010), Technical, Vocational, and Entrepreneurial Capacities in Southern Sudan: Assessment and Opportunities. Toronto: Centre for Refugee Studies, York University, and Plan Canada.

Attanasio, O. P., Kugler, A. D. and Meghir, C. (2009), Subsidizing Vocational Training for Disadvantaged Youth in Developing Countries: Evidence from a Randomized Trial. London, Houston: University College London, University of Houston, IFS, NBER and CEPR.

Avery, A. (2009), International Family Literacy Initiative - Rwanda - INEE AYTT case study: ProLiteracy Worldwide.

Awad, Z., Shamseddine, R. and Brooks, D. (2009), Young Women’s Project & Youth Outreach Project - Lebanon- INEE AYTT case study: Norwegian Refugee Council.

Baxter, P. (2002), A Decade of Lessons Learned in Peace Education Programmes. Unpublished.

Berg, C. (2009), Youth and Livelihoods pilot project - Southern Sudan - INEE AYTT Case Study. Washington, DC: International Rescue Committee.

Betancourt, T., Simmons, S., Ivelina, B., Brewer, S., Iweala, U. and Soudiere, M. D. L. (2008), 'High Hope, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone'. Comparative Education Review, 52 (4), 565-587.

Burge, R. (2009), Impact study: People affected by Conflict. London: Comic Relief.

CEDPA. (2008a), Development of Leadership Self Efficacy and Collective Efficacy: Adolescent Girls as Peer Educators in Rural Nepal. Washington, DC: The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA).

Chikanya, M. (2009), Hope and Homes for Children - Sudan, Khartoum - INEE AYTT Case Study. Salisbury: Hope and Homes for Children.

Cunningham, W., McGinnis, L., Verdú, R. G., Tesliuc, C. and Verner, D. (eds) (2008), Youth at Risk in Latin America and the Caribbean - Understanding the Causes, Realizing the Potential. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Erulkar, A. S. and Chong, E. (2005), Evaluation of a Savings & Micro-Credit Program for Vulnerable Young Women in Nairobi. Nairobi, New York: Population Council.

Fauth, G. and Daniels, B. (2001), Impact Evaluation; Youth Reintegration Training and Education for Peace (YRTEP) Program: Prepared for USAID by MSI.

Hansen, A., Nenon, J., Wolf, J. and Sommers, M. (2002), Final Evaluation of the Office of Transition Initiatives Program in Sierra Leone: Final Report. Washington, DC and Atlanta, GA: USAID.

Hayden, M. F. (2007), End of Project Evaluation: Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Women and Children Associated with Fighting Forces in Liberia International Rescue Committee (IRC) Liberia. Washington, DC: International Rescue Committee.

ILO. (2005), Youth: Pathways to decent work - Promoting youth employment - Tackling the challenge. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Johannessen, E. M. (2005), One Step Closer – But How Far? A study on former TEP students in Angola and Burundi. Oslo: Norwegian Refugee Council.

Ketel, H. (2008), Equipping Youth for Life - Youth Education Pack in Burundi, Norwegian Refugee Council Evaluation Report. Oslo: Norwegian Refugee Council.

Krzysiek, P. (2010), Providing vocational training and psychosocial support to Iraqi adolescents in Syria: IECD Youth Centre in Jaramana, Damascus. Damascus: UNICEF and Institut Européen de Coopération et de Développement.

Lyby, E. (2001), 'Vocational Training for Refugees: A Case Study from Tanzania'. In J. Crisp, C. Talbot and D.B. Cipollone (eds), Learning For a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries (pp. 217-259).Geneva: UNHCR.

Mac-Ikemenjima, D. (2008), 'Youth development, reintegration, reconciliation and rehabilitation in postconflict West Africa: A framework for Sierra Leone, Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire'. International NGO Journal, 3 (9), 146-151.

MacLaren, D. (2010), Tertiary Education in Pursuit of the Common Good: the Thai-Burma Border Experience: Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Australian Catholic University, MacKillop Campus (unpublished).

Malik, J. A. (2008), Legal Aid and Vocational Training for Afghan Refugees and Support to Host Communities in Pakistan - A Post Project Evaluation Report. Islamabad: International Rescue Committee.

Moberg, L. and Johnson-Demen, A. (2009), "Small-Small Steps" to Rebuild Communities with YEP - NRC Youth Education Pack Project in Liberia: Post Graduates and Income Generating Activities. Oslo: Norwegian Refugee Council.

Morlang, C. and Watson, S. (2007), Tertiary Refugee Education: Impact and Achievements: 15 Years of DAFI. Geneva: UNHCR.

NRC. (2008), Evaluation of the Teacher Emergency Package (T.E.P.) Angola. Oslo: Norwegian Refugee Council.

Obura, A. P. (2002), Peace Education Programme in Dadaab and Kakuma, Kenya.

Otieno, C. (2009), Participatory Video Program - Kakuma refugee camp - INEE AYTT case study. Nairobi: FilmAid.

Parsons, C. (2008), Final Program Evaluation of the Consortium for Assistance and Recovery toward Development in Indonesia’s Community-Driven Reconstruction Program May 1, 2006 to April 30, 2008 in the provinces of Maluku and North Maluku: Consortium for Assistance and Recovery toward Development in Indonesia (CARDI).

Pherali, T. J. (2007), The Role of Youth in Peacebuilding and Community Decision Making in Nepal - Baseline Study Report. Kathmandu: Search for Common Ground.

Plan International. (2009), Conflict Resolution for Adolescents in Colombia (2002-2009). [Online].

Plan International and World Vision International. (2009), Children on the Frontline - Children and Young People in Disaster Risk Reduction - A child-centred complement to the report of the Global Network of NGOs - Views from the Frontline. London, Monrovia: Plan International, World Vision International.

Project Baobab. (2009), Teaching Kenyan Youth Skills for Independence. Nairobi: Project Baobab.

Purnell, S. (2006), RTEC/ACU evaluation. Mae Sot: ZOA Refugee Care Thailand.

Purnell, S. (2008), Taking Learning Further: A research paper on refugee access to higher education. (with Aranya Kengkunchorn) Mae Sot: ZOA Refugee Care Thailand.

Rahim, A. and Holland, P. (2006), Facilitating Transitions for Children and Youth: Lessons from Four Post-Conflict Fund Countries, World Bank Social Development Papers 34. Washington DC: The World Bank.

RET. (2009), The success of the RET Secondary Education through Distance Learning (SEDL) as exemplified through exams. Geneva: The Refugee Education Trust.

RET. (2010), More than a snapshot: refugee reality in photographs. Geneva: The Refugee Education Trust.

Sommers, M. (2001a), 'Peace Education and Refugee Youth'. In J. Crisp, C. Talbot and D. B. Cipollone (eds), Learning For a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries (pp. 163-216). Geneva: UNHCR.

Tiedemann, M. (2000), The Health of Adolescent Refugees Project (HARP): Evaluation of the Pilot Project. North Carolina, USA: Family Health International.

UNHCR. (2001), HIV/AIDS Education for refugee youth - The window of hope. Geneva: UNHCR, Education Unit, Health and Community Development Section.

UNICEF. (2004), Adolescent programming experiences during conflict and post-conflict - CASE STUDIES. New York: UNICEF.

Valle, F. D. (2010), Promoting Employment and Entrepreneurship for Vulnerable Youths in West Bank and Gaza Strip. Jerusalem: UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

Wallenborn, M. (2008), 'Are recent development strategies really doing better? The new aid architecture for VET'.NORRAG NEWS, 41.

Windle Trust. (2009), Windle Trust: Tertiary Activities in Emergency Situations - INEE AYTT Case Study. London: Windle Trust.

Witherite, L. (2007), Final Evaluation of Opportunities for Reducing Adolescent and Child LaborThrough Education (ORACLE) Project in Uganda. Washington, DC: International Rescue Committee.

Women’s Refugee Commission. (2009a), Dreams Deferred: Educational and Skills-building Needs and Opportunities for Youth in Liberia. New York: Women’s Refugee Commission.

Women’s Refugee Commission, Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs, Bidwell, K., Galbraith, C., Haddad, L., Hermes, R., Kleiner, S., Raheem, Z. and Scheffler, K. (2008b), Youth and Sustainable Livelihoods: Linking Vocational Training Programs to Market Opportunities in Northern Uganda. New York: Women’s Refugee Commission and School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University.

World Bank. (2008), Youth in Jeopardy: Being Young, Unemployed, and Poor in Kosovo - A Report on Youth Employment in Kosovo. Washington DC: The World Bank, Human Development Sector Unit.

Zeus, B. (2009), Exploring Paradoxes Around Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations - The Case of Burmese Refugees in Thailand. Institute of Education, London.


Below are presented two sample annotations from the complete annotated bibliography.

The entries briefly introduce the document setting the context (?) with the main goals and objectives of the specific study or programme described. Next, findings (=) are portrayed, wherever possible divided in success and positive impacts (+) and challenges, failures and gaps identified (-). Finally, conclusions (!) of the study or evaluation are given with any recommendations or lessons learned if specified.

Lyby, E. (2001), 'Vocational Training for Refugees: A Case Study from Tanzania'. In J. Crisp, C. Talbot and D.B. Cipollone (eds), Learning For a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries (pp. 217-259). Geneva: UNHCR.

(?) evaluation of ongoing skills training programmes, with a view to expanding them into a wider programme based in the refugee camps; proposed training programme would be based on the concept of education for repatriation, with the aim of extending skills that will be of use on return to Burundi; evaluation used qualitative interviews with key informants, supplemented by a questionnaire survey;
(=) formal accredited training in camps reaches only very few, mostly those who have an English-language capability; informal training are overall relevant to the situation, as well as cost-efficient; at least 2,500 people have received training, in addition to those involved in income-generating activities, which also often include a training component; training is practical, but lacking a theoretical component to increase quality of output; however, management of the programmes is somewhat loose, with no clearly formulated objectives and plans; with a mix of economic and social objectives – on the one hand to transfer employable skills, and on the other to occupy the many out-of-school youths with little to do in the camps; due to lack of consistent design, monitoring is limited to basic reporting and accounting of the spending of funds; (!)expanded skills training programme is relevant and necessary as repatriation will take place only in longer term; proposed programme to consist of two main parts: 1) vocational training, aimed at the provision of skills for (self)employment – the economic objective; 2) non-vocational activities, aimed at occupying youth not interested in vocational skills training with positive activities for the body and mind – the social objective.

Pherali, T. J. (2007), The Role of Youth in Peacebuilding and Community Decision Making in Nepal - Baseline Study Report. Kathmandu: Search for Common Ground.

(?) understand current attitudes and actions of rural youth towards conflict and peace building to establish foundations for an initiative that promotes youth’s involvement in building peace in Nepal and their participation in community level decision making;
(=) vast majority of rural youth know of their right to education and regard it as a way to improve their lives, but lack substantive freedom to make the positive choices they would like to; similarly, they know of the risks of getting involved in violence but are forced to make unwanted choices due to socio-political pressures; youth perceive their roles as social transformers in their communities and country at large, but lack a clear understanding and ability to perform this role and are constrained by traditional cultural hierarchies of generations and further socio-economic challenges such as poverty, caste and gender discrimination; as a result of traditional rote-learning they also lack analytical and critical thinking skills; adults do not trust youth as decision makers and problem solvers at community level, thus youth participation is negligible and limited to passive roles and youth barely engage in dialogue with elders leaving youth vulnerable to manipulation by politicians; however, those involved in youth clubs or organisations largely exhibited more self-confidence and ability to relate to elders; youth are not organising to address root causes of conflict, bringing people together from across dividing lines is not seen as necessary to solve problems; most youth lack knowledge of examples of positive, active youth involvement in conflict resolution; (!) youth have great potential to contribute to peacebuilding in Nepal; for this their peacebuilding willingness must be supported and facilitated at all levels; youth need to be equipped with conflict transformation skills and there is a need for change in adult’s perceptions in relation to youth’s roles as problem solvers and decision makers both at local and national levels.