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Crises negatively affect the education and livelihood prospects of youth, which in turn can play a role in the perpetuation of fragility in post-crisis settings. The development and implementation of effective education and training for youth in contexts characterized by displacement, a breakdown of social services, and economic despair presents a broad spectrum of challenges. Yet, it is a necessary component of promoting self-sufficiency and long-term stability.
This annotated bibliography aims to contribute to building the evidence base to effectively articulate and advocate for successful, quality education programming for all youth affected by crisis. The selection criteria for documents reviewed in this annotated bibliography were broadly defined as any texts dealing with, reviewing, analyzing, evaluating or describing educational programmes catering specifically or partially to youth and adolescents in situations of emergency, protracted crisis through to post-crisis and recovery. Preference was given to texts that address specific impacts and lessons learned. This review is not meant to be a mapping exercise of existing programmes and actors, rather it attempts to document specific impacts of programmatic approaches. To suggest additional articles to be included in the annotated bibliography or for further information, please contact [email protected] or [email protected].
Atari, D. O., Abdelnour, S., McKague, K. and Wager, R. (2010), Technical, Vocational, and Entrepreneurial Capacities in Southern Sudan: Assessment and Opportunities. Toronto: Centre for Refugee Studies, York University, and Plan Canada.
Attanasio, O. P., Kugler, A. D. and Meghir, C. (2009), Subsidizing Vocational Training for Disadvantaged Youth in Developing Countries: Evidence from a Randomized Trial. London, Houston: University College London, University of Houston, IFS, NBER and CEPR.
Betancourt, T., Simmons, S., Ivelina, B., Brewer, S., Iweala, U. and Soudiere, M. D. L. (2008), 'High Hope, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone'. Comparative Education Review, 52 (4), 565-587.
CEDPA. (2008a), Development of Leadership Self Efficacy and Collective Efficacy: Adolescent Girls as Peer Educators in Rural Nepal. Washington, DC: The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA).
Cunningham, W., McGinnis, L., Verdú, R. G., Tesliuc, C. and Verner, D. (eds) (2008), Youth at Risk in Latin America and the Caribbean - Understanding the Causes, Realizing the Potential. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.
Hayden, M. F. (2007), End of Project Evaluation: Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Women and Children Associated with Fighting Forces in Liberia International Rescue Committee (IRC) Liberia. Washington, DC: International Rescue Committee.
Krzysiek, P. (2010), Providing vocational training and psychosocial support to Iraqi adolescents in Syria: IECD Youth Centre in Jaramana, Damascus. Damascus: UNICEF and Institut Européen de Coopération et de Développement.
Lyby, E. (2001), 'Vocational Training for Refugees: A Case Study from Tanzania'. In J. Crisp, C. Talbot and D.B. Cipollone (eds), Learning For a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries (pp. 217-259).Geneva: UNHCR.
Mac-Ikemenjima, D. (2008), 'Youth development, reintegration, reconciliation and rehabilitation in postconflict West Africa: A framework for Sierra Leone, Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire'. International NGO Journal, 3 (9), 146-151.
Moberg, L. and Johnson-Demen, A. (2009), "Small-Small Steps" to Rebuild Communities with YEP - NRC Youth Education Pack Project in Liberia: Post Graduates and Income Generating Activities. Oslo: Norwegian Refugee Council.
Parsons, C. (2008), Final Program Evaluation of the Consortium for Assistance and Recovery toward Development in Indonesia’s Community-Driven Reconstruction Program May 1, 2006 to April 30, 2008 in the provinces of Maluku and North Maluku: Consortium for Assistance and Recovery toward Development in Indonesia (CARDI).
Plan International and World Vision International. (2009), Children on the Frontline - Children and Young People in Disaster Risk Reduction - A child-centred complement to the report of the Global Network of NGOs - Views from the Frontline. London, Monrovia: Plan International, World Vision International.
Rahim, A. and Holland, P. (2006), Facilitating Transitions for Children and Youth: Lessons from Four Post-Conflict Fund Countries, World Bank Social Development Papers 34. Washington DC: The World Bank.
Sommers, M. (2001a), 'Peace Education and Refugee Youth'. In J. Crisp, C. Talbot and D. B. Cipollone (eds), Learning For a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries (pp. 163-216). Geneva: UNHCR.
Women’s Refugee Commission, Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs, Bidwell, K., Galbraith, C., Haddad, L., Hermes, R., Kleiner, S., Raheem, Z. and Scheffler, K. (2008b), Youth and Sustainable Livelihoods: Linking Vocational Training Programs to Market Opportunities in Northern Uganda. New York: Women’s Refugee Commission and School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University.
The entries briefly introduce the document setting the context (?) with the main goals and objectives of the specific study or programme described. Next, findings (=) are portrayed, wherever possible divided in success and positive impacts (+) and challenges, failures and gaps identified (-). Finally, conclusions (!) of the study or evaluation are given with any recommendations or lessons learned if specified.
Lyby, E. (2001), 'Vocational Training for Refugees: A Case Study from Tanzania'. In J. Crisp, C. Talbot and D.B. Cipollone (eds), Learning For a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries (pp. 217-259). Geneva: UNHCR.
(?) evaluation of ongoing skills training programmes, with a view to expanding them into a wider programme based in the refugee camps; proposed training programme would be based on the concept of education for repatriation, with the aim of extending skills that will be of use on return to Burundi; evaluation used qualitative interviews with key informants, supplemented by a questionnaire survey;
(=) formal accredited training in camps reaches only very few, mostly those who have an English-language capability; informal training are overall relevant to the situation, as well as cost-efficient; at least 2,500 people have received training, in addition to those involved in income-generating activities, which also often include a training component; training is practical, but lacking a theoretical component to increase quality of output; however, management of the programmes is somewhat loose, with no clearly formulated objectives and plans; with a mix of economic and social objectives – on the one hand to transfer employable skills, and on the other to occupy the many out-of-school youths with little to do in the camps; due to lack of consistent design, monitoring is limited to basic reporting and accounting of the spending of funds; (!)expanded skills training programme is relevant and necessary as repatriation will take place only in longer term; proposed programme to consist of two main parts: 1) vocational training, aimed at the provision of skills for (self)employment – the economic objective; 2) non-vocational activities, aimed at occupying youth not interested in vocational skills training with positive activities for the body and mind – the social objective.
Pherali, T. J. (2007), The Role of Youth in Peacebuilding and Community Decision Making in Nepal - Baseline Study Report. Kathmandu: Search for Common Ground.
(?) understand current attitudes and actions of rural youth towards conflict and peace building to establish foundations for an initiative that promotes youth’s involvement in building peace in Nepal and their participation in community level decision making;
(=) vast majority of rural youth know of their right to education and regard it as a way to improve their lives, but lack substantive freedom to make the positive choices they would like to; similarly, they know of the risks of getting involved in violence but are forced to make unwanted choices due to socio-political pressures; youth perceive their roles as social transformers in their communities and country at large, but lack a clear understanding and ability to perform this role and are constrained by traditional cultural hierarchies of generations and further socio-economic challenges such as poverty, caste and gender discrimination; as a result of traditional rote-learning they also lack analytical and critical thinking skills; adults do not trust youth as decision makers and problem solvers at community level, thus youth participation is negligible and limited to passive roles and youth barely engage in dialogue with elders leaving youth vulnerable to manipulation by politicians; however, those involved in youth clubs or organisations largely exhibited more self-confidence and ability to relate to elders; youth are not organising to address root causes of conflict, bringing people together from across dividing lines is not seen as necessary to solve problems; most youth lack knowledge of examples of positive, active youth involvement in conflict resolution; (!) youth have great potential to contribute to peacebuilding in Nepal; for this their peacebuilding willingness must be supported and facilitated at all levels; youth need to be equipped with conflict transformation skills and there is a need for change in adult’s perceptions in relation to youth’s roles as problem solvers and decision makers both at local and national levels.